Dysmenorrhea and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome
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Primary dysmenorrhea, which is defined as painful menses in women with normal pelvic anatomy, usually begins during adolescence. It is characterized by crampy pelvic pain beginning shortly before or at the onset of menses and lasting one to three days. Dysmenorrhea also may be secondary to pelvic organ pathology.

The prevalence of dysmenorrhea is highest in adolescent women, with estimates ranging from 20 to 90 percent, depending on the measurement method used.1–3 About 15 percent of adolescent girls report severe dysmenorrhea,1,4 and it is the leading cause of recurrent short-term school absenteeism in adolescent girls in the United States.2,5 A longitudinal study6 of a representative cohort of Swedish women found a prevalence of dysmenorrhea of 90 percent in women 19 years of age and 67 percent in women 24 years of age. Ten percent of the 24-year-olds reported pain that interfered with daily function. Most adolescents self-medicate with over-the-counter medicines, and few consult a physician about dysmenorrhea.

Dysmenorrhea is thought to be caused by the release of prostaglandins in the menstrual fluid, which causes uterine contractions and pain. Vasopressin also may play a role by increasing uterine contractility and causing ischemic pain as a result of vasoconstriction. Elevated vasopressin levels have been reported in women with primary dysmenorrhea.

The relationship between endometriosis and dysmenorrhea is not clear. Endometriosis may be asymptomatic, or it may be associated with pelvic pain that is not limited to the menstrual period and the low anterior pelvis. In one study7 of women undergoing elective sterilization, no difference was found in the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in women with and women without an incidental finding of endometriosis. However, an observational study8 of women undergoing laparoscopy for infertility supported a relationship between Dysmenorrhea and the severity of Endometriosis.

Dandelion Herbal Remedies
Dandelion root, ubiquitous in lawns and gardens, is widely-used for cooling and cleansing the liver; it is excellent in formulas for hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver toxicity. It increases the flow of bile and has been used for cholecystitis, gallstones, and jaundice. Dandelion has anti-carcinogenic, estrogen-lowering, and blood cholesterol-lowering capabilities. It also helps with headaches, emotional swings before or during menstruation, acne, red, irritated eyes, mood swings, and other problems related to "liver heat" and is a strong diuretic. In Chinese medicine dandelion root is taken internally and applied topically for abscesses and nodules. Additionally, it is used to increase lactation and clear liver heat when there are symptoms such as painfully inflamed eyes. Dandelion root tea is also a famous specific for breast cancer but should be taken in conjunction with other blood purifying herbs, such as sarsaparilla, red clover, and burdock root, as well as appropriate immune-strengthen.

Motherwort Herbal Remedies
Well-known as an emmenagogue, sedative, and nervine, motherwort is extremely beneficial to the cardiac and female systems. Women use it for amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, PMS, and vaginal dryness. As a heart tonic, it is used to strengthen the heart, benefit palpitations and hypertension, and relieve pain of mild angina.. Motherwort has a taste of BITTER and a temperature of COOL.

Blue Cohosh Herbal Remedies
Blue cohosh is considered to be an effective uterine tonic. It has long been used to help facilitate childbirth, though its use is not recommended in the early stages of pregnancy. It is also indicated in suppressed or painful menstruation and for the pains of arthritis and rheumatism. Blue cohosh is also a specific for ovarian pain. Blue Cohosh has a taste of ACRID, BITTER and a temperature of WARM.

Cramp Bark Herbal Remedies
True to its name, cramp bark is an important remedy for cramps of the smooth muscle (especially for menstrual cramps) but also for intestinal cramps. Its antispasmodic action makes it an important herb when dealing with threatened miscarriage, where it is often blended with blue cohosh. For this use it is best to consult a qualified herbalist or health care practitioner. Cramp bark is also useful in nervous bowel, colic, and migraine. Cramp Bark has a taste of BITTER, AROMATIC and a temperature of WARM.

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